Who and in what year invented the world's first TV

Today it is difficult to imagine, that some hundred years ago humanity could do without television. This technique has become a familiar part of the family, entertaining, teaching and informing other household members. It will be interesting to know, who invented the first TV.

Prerequisites for the emergence of television

It is very important to note that, that before the advent of the very first TV, radio was invented. Here, opinions about his "founding fathers" differ: the national point of view calls the name of the inventor of radio №1 A. WITH. Popova, and Marconi studied this problem abroad, Tesla, Branley.

To the question, who exactly invented the TV, it is impossible to give an unambiguous answer. Next is the name of Paul Nipkov. That's what he became, who invented a special device - a disk, named after him. The invention occurred in 1884 year. It was the radio signal and mechanical scanning that led to the advent of television.

Few people know, that with the help of Nipkov's disk it was possible to read the image in order and pass it on to the screen. Enterprising John Byrd from Scotland in the late twenties of last century and developed the first television, It was based on this principle. He successfully implemented the created project.

John Logie Baird

The leadership of mechanical televisions from the Baird Corporation of the same name was attached to such devices until the 1930s.. The picture was clear, but without sound. However, the future has been determined: it belonged to the cathode ray tube.

Invention and use of CRT

The global trend of technical superiority has forced better minds to work for progress: work on the invention of the cathode ray tube (EPT) was conducted in many countries. Again, it is worth highlighting the contribution of n scientists - in 1907 Boris Rosing receives a patent for such a development. But he came to this, based on previous discoveries.

And here you can give a brief digression into history. You can remember, that another German Heinrich Hertz 1887 year discovered the effects of light on electricity: that's how the photo effect came about. Then he could not explain, in which as well as for what the photo effect is required. This was done for him a year ago by Alexander Stoletov, who tried to construct a prototype of modern photovoltaic cells, when the electric eye device was invented. After him, many scientists have tried to explain the nature of this phenomenon. These include Albert Einstein.

Other discoveries are also important, that influenced the emergence of future television. For example, in 1879 English physicist William Crookes creates matter (phosphors), able to glow under the influence of the cathode ray. And Carl Brown even tried to create a future tube. It is thanks to this Brownian kinescope that Boris Rosing, already mentioned by us, was able to substantiate the theory of obtaining an image in this way.. And in 1933 year his student Vladimir Zvorykin created the first TV with an iconoscope - so he called the electronic tube.

It is Zvorykin who is considered the "father" of modern TV. Even the world's first TV set was created in his American laboratory of the same name (he was an emigrant, who left the country after the October Revolution). And in 1939 the first models for mass production appeared in.

This led to that, that in subsequent years, the first televisions actively conquered European countries - first in Britain, Germany and so on. Initially, all images were transmitted in optical-mechanical scan, but then, with improved image quality, there was a transition to scanning the beam in the cathode ray tube.

As was the case in the Soviet Union

The first televisions in the USSR appeared in 1939 year - they began to produce the Leningrad plant "Comintern". The principle of operation was the action of the Nipkov disk, and therefore such a prefix, having a screen 3 on 4 cm, had to be connected to a radio. Then you need to switch the radio to other frequencies - as a result, you could watch those programs, which were broadcast in European countries.

It was also interesting, that such first televisions could be made by anyone. The relevant instruction was published in the Radiofront magazine especially for this purpose.

Regular telecasting began in 1938 year Experienced Leningrad Center. And in the capital, TV programs began to air about six months later. Interesting, that different decomposition standards were used in each of the telecentres of these cities, which required the use of certain models of technology.

  1. The VRK TV device was used to receive broadcasts from the Leningrad Television and Radio Center. (in the transcript - All-Union Radio Committee). It was a device with a screen 130?175 mm, the work of the tube in which provided 24 lamps. The principle of operation - decomposition into 240 lines. Interesting, that was released in the 1930s 20 instances of such a device. Such equipment was installed in the homes of pioneers and palaces of culture for collective viewing.
  2. Moscow TV Center broadcast with decomposition on 343 lines - it was perceived by devices "MK-1". This already meant a more complex device 33 lamps. Only for 1938 year they were released 200 things, and before the Great Patriotic War - 2 thousand. copies.

The study of human engineering thought did not stop there - sooner or later simplified models were to appear. Example, at the Leningrad plant "Radist" in 1940 year, a serial version of "17TN-1" was proposed, who could play programs like Leningrad television, and Moscow. Production was launched, but before the start of hostilities managed to get everything 2 thousand. things.

You can also give an example of a simplified model called "ATP-1" (Subscriber television receiver №1) - it was the prototype of modern cable subscriber television. It was produced by the Alexander Plant before the war.

When television became color

All of the above tells about the transfer of black and white images. Scientists continued to work on it, to make it colorful.

When did color TVs appear?? For the first time this began to be thought about during the time of mechanical televisions. One of the first developments is Hovhannes Adamyan, which is still in 1908 year receives a patent for which can transmit signals two-color device. One cannot fail to mention John Louga Brad, the same inventor of the mechanical receiver. It is them in 1928 year, a color TV was assembled, which successively transmitted three images using blue, red and green light filter.

But these were just attempts. The real leap in the development of color television occurred after the end of World War II. Once all forces were thrown into civil proceedings, then it inevitably led to progress in this area. And so it happened in the United States. An additional basis was the use of decimeter waves to transmit images.

This led to that, that already in 1940 year, American scientists presented the system "Triniscope". She was notable for that, that it used three CRTs with different colors of phosphor glow, each of which reproduced its own image color.

As for domestic spaces, then in the USSR similar technical developments began to appear only in 1951 year. But a year later, even ordinary viewers could see a test color broadcast.

In the 70's, the TV became a common technical device in many homes around the world. The Soviet space was no exception, the only one, what is worth noting: color TVs remained in short supply in our country until almost the end of the eighties of the last century.

Progress does not stand still

The inventors tried to improve the result - so y 1956 year, a remote control appeared. Who created such a useful device? It was designed by Robert Adler 1956 year. The principle of its operation was the transmission of ultrasonic signals, which were modulated by the appropriate commands. The very first remote control could only control the volume and switch channels, but even at that time it was a significant statement.

As for the infrared version of the remote control, then she appeared in 1974 year as a result of developments Grundig and Magnavox. His birth was dictated by the advent of teletext, which required more precise management, a, means, then the buttons appeared. And already in the eighties the remote control is additionally used as an analog of the gamepad, because then TVs became an additional monitor to the first home computers and game consoles.

With the advent of VCRs, there has been a need for additional component video input (in addition to the existing analog antenna).

With the beginning of the twenty-first century, the era of CRTs came to an end - plasma panels and LCD TVs began to appear.. And by 2010, CRT models were virtually pushed out of the market by flat devices in LCD and PDP format.. Many of them can connect to the Internet and even demonstrate the ability to view 3D content.

Today's TV is a bit like its ancestor - it has the functions of a home media center, while maintaining the functions of watching terrestrial and cable television. And that's not to mention the image quality, transmitted in the high standard (and in top models and ultra-high) clarity.