Chimney for solid fuel boiler. What are the chimneys. Choice of chimney

Currently, boilers are used to heat most country houses. Such units must be equipped with structures, which will remove carbon monoxide and smoke, formed during fuel combustion. Chimneys for solid fuel boilers - structures, without which the operation of the heating system is simply impossible. And that, in turn, makes special demands, as to their device, and installation.

The main requirement for chimneys for solid fuel boilers is resistance to high temperatures, therefore, not all types of pipes are suitable for such furnaces

What are the chimneys

One of the main generally accepted criteria for the classification of smoke exhaust systems is the material of manufacture.

Brick exhaust pipe. Constructions of this type are the most popular. Everyone knows the high fire resistance of brick - it can withstand temperatures up to +900 ?WITH. However, it is not recommended to use it for heating boilers with low efficiency. The reason lies in the features of this material. To get decent traction, a lot of heat will go to heat up the walls of the brick pipe for the boiler.

There are also a few negative points. Due to the porosity of the brick, soot deposits accumulate on its surface. in addition, for that reason, that condensate falls from the combustion gases, masonry strength decreases. In addition, not every homeowner can make a high-quality and correct chimney from this material with his own hands - it is quite difficult. And the last, what should be said is the need for periodic cleaning, which is very troublesome, and it costs a lot of money.

Steel chimneys. Pipes for a solid fuel boiler of this type almost do not need to be cleaned, because its inner surface is smooth. But constructions, made of ferrous metal, prone to corrosion, and this is already a big minus. Therefore, experts recommend choosing stainless steel products. The advantages of such a solution are as follows:

  • the temperature of the stainless exhaust pipe for the boiler is not terrible, almost an order of magnitude higher: to +7000 ?WITH;
  • it is much easier to mount such products. A person can build a steel chimney for a solid fuel boiler with his own hands, having only basic construction skills. So, saving money is ensured by the absence of the need to involve professionals, the cost of which services is considerable.

The optimal choice for the boiler, which consumes solid fuel is a steel chimney, but it must be stainless

But steel chimneys for boilers must be thermally insulated. After all, the metal is heated to a very high temperature, which can cause a fire.

Importantly! The places where steel chimneys for heating boilers pass through the roof should be especially carefully insulated, through the attic space and through the ceiling.

Ceramic chimneys. Smoke exhaust systems of this type are characterized by fire safety and a long service life. Ceramics are produced as a result of firing, and therefore perfectly withstands high temperatures. This material does not contribute to the ignition of soot deposits, and is not prone to burning.

The ceramic boiler pipe resembles a shell in its structural design. In its middle layer there is a heater, as well as all attributes, required for connection to a solid fuel boiler. Individual length blocks are produced 33 centimeters. Such dimensions allow you to install ceramic chimneys for solid fuel boilers with your own hands quickly and easily.

This material is environmentally friendly, chimney systems created on its basis are able to withstand temperature (WARNING!) to +12000 ?WITH! Well and, of course, they are not afraid of the effects of condensate and toxic gases.

Glass chimneys. Chimney constructions made of fire-resistant glass are not widely demanded in the domestic market today, as it is observed in the countries of Europe and Asia. This phenomenon is explained by two factors:

  • A glass chimney for a solid fuel boiler is relatively expensive;
  • the population is not sufficiently informed about such products.

However, high-quality characteristics of glass chimneys allow them to compete with similar functionally similar structures. The starting material is not subject to corrosion, its smooth surface prevents the formation of soot deposits, and it is able to withstand fairly high temperatures. And in an extreme case, when the boiler glass pipe collapses (which can happen with a chimney made of any other raw material), due to the peculiarities of the manufacturing technology, sharp fragments are not formed, which reduces the risk of injury.

Asbestos-cement pipes are a budget option for installing a chimney, but their service life will be short-lived

From the disadvantages of such products, in addition to the relatively high cost, the difficulty of installation can be highlighted. An ordinary homeowner will not be able to cope with such a task without the involvement of specialists.

Asbestos-cement chimneys. Even in the recent past, these pipes were used, almost everywhere for installation of smoke removal systems from heating devices, stoves and fireplaces. Now it is impractical to use them. This is determined, Firstly, team, that at a temperature +3000 ?Asbestos is destroyed. And secondly, this material is characterized by low mechanical strength.

On a side note! However, for those, who is experiencing financial difficulties, this option has the right to life: asbestos pipes are inexpensive.

Choice of chimney. Main criteria

Material for making a chimney for a boiler, operating on solid fuel, is far from the only factor, which must be paid attention to when choosing a specific model of such a product. It should also be taken into account:

  • temperature of combustion gases;
  • type of boiler according to the type of draft - natural or with the help of a fan (forced);
  • resistance to corrosion and condensation;
  • shape and dimensions of the internal section;
  • the length of the pipe and its location;
  • you can with your own hands, without involving professionals, carry out installation;
  • ease of maintenance of chimneys for heating boilers.

Of course, that metal products are exposed to corrosion. And here there is one rule. Chimney materials for solid fuel boilers must be characterized by 2nd or 3rd class of corrosion resistance.

The location of the chimney pipe plays an important role in the operation of the heating system

The location of the device is selected taking into account the material of the walls and ceiling of the room. And on the chimney, and enclosing structures are subject to norms and tolerances, contained in the relevant documents.

To create a comfortable temperature in the house, fuel consumption and efficiency of a solid fuel boiler affects the quality of traction. And there is this parameter, in turn, a value derived from the cross-sectional dimensions and construction form of the toxic gas removal system. A chimney arrangement for a solid fuel boiler is considered the best, having the shape of a circle or oval. The laws of physics work here. If the pipe for the boiler has a rectangular or square section, rising combustion gases create turbulence. For this reason, traction is reduced, and deposits of soot and soot are formed faster. This characteristic depends on the slope and number of bends of the boiler room chimney: the fewer there are, the better the traction.

The length of the chimney is also affected:

  • the type of roof and the degree of steepness of its slope;
  • type of roofing material;
  • directions and strength of prevailing winds in this region;
  • pipe diameter.

The height of the chimney for a solid fuel boiler above the ridge of the roof is not less 50 centimeters, and its length should not exceed the limits 5-6 meters. Calculation of the diameter of the combustion products removal system, actually, as well as the development of its scheme, must be carried out at the design stage. It is desirable that a specialist was engaged in this work.

Features of the chimney for a gas boiler. Constituent elements

In this case, the name "chimney" does not fully reflect the purpose of such a system. This is only a visible part of its functional focus. In general, for such a complex and very important design, the definition "ventilation system for a gas boiler" is more suitable.

The coaxial type chimney is easy to distinguish by its appearance; it is applicable only for gas equipment, they are not installed on solid fuel and other boilers

Importantly! From that, how correctly it is implemented, it also depends on the efficiency of the heating unit.

Recently, the so-called. n. sandwich constructions of chimneys. They are made from two pipes of different diameters, one of which is inserted into the other. The space left between them is filled with a material that can withstand high temperatures (most often basalt wool). This constructive solution of the ventilation channel is one of the most durable and effective.

Another common type of toxic gas removal system is a coaxial chimney. It has an aesthetic and attractive appearance. The operational properties of the coaxial exhaust pipe for a gas heating boiler are also at a fairly high level. Condensation does not form on its walls, which is very important when using a heating unit of this type for heating a house.

Chimney pipe for a gas boiler (however, as for all other types of furnaces) consists of the following elements:

  • adapter. It connects the outlet pipe of the boiler to the outlet pipe;
  • tee with revision. This element is equipped with a fitting, through which condensing moisture is removed;
  • fasteners - brackets and clamps;
  • taps. They are used only when necessary. Installation of taps is carried out at a distance from the heating element no less 2 meters. If this condition is not met, traction force may decrease;
  • pipes;
  • transition pipes;
  • conical tip.

A steel chimney of the "sandwich" type is assembled from several segments, the system includes not only straight sections of pipes, but also leads, tees, adapters and other elements

Installation of an external chimney

Works on installation of the toxic gas removal system, which is located outside the house, include the following stages:

  • adapter, that passes through the wall, is put on the boiler nozzle;
  • part of the chimney is led outside through the wall. All elements, in contact with concrete (brick), must be carefully isolated;
  • a plug is put on for revision. After that, it is attached to the entrance to the outside segment;
  • the installation of the pipe of the required height is carried out from the pre-purchased links. The created structure is attached to the wall of the house with the help of clamps with brackets. The distance of adjacent fasteners from each other should not be less 2 meters:
  • when the chimney reaches the desired height, a cone-shaped tip is put on the upper element;
  • all joints must be tightened with steel wire or clamps;
  • At the final stage, experts recommend painting the pipelines of ventilation systems. So the material will be protected from corrosion, and the chimney itself will acquire a more attractive appearance.

Importantly! If sandwich pipes are not used, it will be necessary to take care of the insulation of the elements of the flue system yourself.

Stages of installation of an internal chimney

In this case, some additional measures must be taken before starting work:

  • markings are applied to the places where the pipe passes through the roof and between floors;
  • holes are cut in the necessary places. All dimensions should be carefully checked, it would be possible to insert the transition pipes as tightly as possible.

Having done that, proceed directly to the installation.

  1. Attach a special adapter to the nozzle, located at the outlet of the boiler.
  2. Attach a revision with a cover to it, necessary for cleaning the chimney.
  3. Set the foundation of the structure. As such, a metal sheet with a support bracket is used.
  4. Assemble the pipe from straight component elements, as well as other necessary knees (adapters). Pipes In places of passage through the floor, use special pipes.
  5. points, where the pipes enter and leave the ceiling, protect with round metal sheets. Their diameter should be slightly larger than the cross-section of the chimney.
  6. Additionally tighten the joints with a steel wire or strengthen them with clamps on bolts.
  7. Install a special cone-shaped nozzle on top of the created structure. It will prevent wind from blowing into the cavity of the chimney system and atmospheric precipitation from entering it.

A chimney for a solid fuel or gas boiler is an integral part of a modern private house. Both the safety of its residents and the efficiency of the heating system depend on it. Therefore, choosing a chimney and its installation should be approached with all responsibility, otherwise, mistakes made can cause very deplorable consequences.